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Tuesday, 18 October 2016

Engineering Hydrology- Model question paper for B.E/B.Tech Civil engineering

1(a) Describe the hydrologic cycle. Explain briefly the man’s interference in various parts of this cycle. (06 Marks)
(b) Explain the different methods of determining the average rainfall over a catchment due to a storm. Discuss the relative merits and demerits of the various methods. (06 Marks)
(c) What is meant by Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) over a basin? Explain how PMP is estimated? (04 Marks)
(d) Analysis of data on maximum one day rainfall depth at Chennai indicated that a depth of 280 mm had a return period of 50 years. Determine the probability of a one day rainfall depth equal to or greater than 280 mm at Chennai occurring (a) once in 20 successive years, (b) two times in 15 successive years, and (c) at least once in 20 successive years. (04 Marks)
2(a) Explain a procedure for fitting Horton’s infiltration equation for experimental data from a given plot. (06 Marks)
(b) List the various data needed to use Penman’s equation for estimating the potential evapotranspiration from a given area. (04 Marks)
(c) Discuss the importance of evaporation control of reservoirs and possible methods of achieving the same. (06 Marks)
(d) In a 140-min storm, the following rates of rainfall were observed in successive 20-min intervals: 6.0, 6.0, 18.0, 13.0, 2.0, 2.0 and 12.0 mm/h. Assuming the φ-index value as 3.0 mm/h and an initial loss of 0.8 mm, determine the total rainfall, net runoff and W-index for the storm. (04 Marks)
3(a) Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the following relative to the flow measurement by using current meters:
(i) Electromagnetic method        (ii) Ultrasound method. (06 Marks)
(b) Explain the procedure for obtaining the stage-discharge relationship of a stream by using the stage-discharge data from a site with permanent control. (06 Marks)
(c) Describe briefly the moving boat method of stream flow measurement. (04 Marks)
(d) It is proposed to adopt the dilution method of stream gauging for a river whose hydraulic properties at average flow are as follows:
Width = 45 m, Depth = 2 m, Discharge = 85 m3/s, Chezy coefficient = 20 to 30. Determine the safe mixing length that has to be adopted for this stream. (04 Marks)
4(a) What is a hydrological drought? What are its components and their possible effects? (06 Marks)
(b) Distinguish between yield and surface water resources potential of a basin having substantial water resources development for meeting irrigation, domestic and industrial needs within the basin. (06 Marks)
(c) Describe briefly the SCS-CN method of estimation yield of a catchment through use of daily rainfall record. (04 Marks)
(d) A reservoir is located in a region where the normal annual precipitation is 160 cm and the normal annual US class A pan evaporation is 200 cm. The average area of reservoir water surface is 75 km2. If under conditions of 35% of the rainfall on the land occupied by the reservoir runoff into the stream, estimate the net annual increase or decrease in the stream flow as result of the reservoir. Assume evaporation pan coefficient = 0.70. (04 Marks)
5(a) Why is base flow separated from the flood hydrograph in the process of developing a unit hydrograph? (04 Marks)
(b) Describe the S-curve method of developing a 6-h UH by using 12-h UH of the catchment. (04 Marks)
(c) The 6-hour unit hydrograph of a catchment is triangular in shape with a base width of 64 hours and a peak ordinate of 30 m3/s. Calculate the equilibrium discharge of the S6 – curve of the basin. (06 Marks)
(d) The 6-hour unit hydrograph of a basin is triangular in shape with a peak of 100 m3/s occurring at 24-h from the start. The base is 72-h.
(i) What is the area of the catchment represented by this unit hydrograph?
(ii) Calculate the flood hydrograph due to a storm of rainfall excess of 2.0 cm during the first 6 hours and 4.0 cm during the second 6 hours interval. The base flow can be assumed to be 25 m3/s constant throughout. (06 Marks)
6(a) Annual flood series having N consecutive entries are available for a catchment. Describe a procedure to verify whether the data follow Gumbel’s distribution. (06 Marks)
(b) Describe a numerical method of hydrologic reservoir routing. (04 Marks)
(c) Describe the Muskingum method of flood routing an inflow hydrograph through a channel reach. Assume the values of coefficients K and x for the reach are known. (06 Marks)
(d) A rectangular parking lot is 150m wide and 300m long. The time of overland flow across the pavement to the longitudinal gutter along the center is 20 minutes and the estimated total tome of concentration to the downstream end of the gutter is 25 minutes. The coefficient of runoff is 0.92. If a rainfall of intensity 6 cm/h falls on the lot for 10 minutes and stops abruptly, determine the peak rate flow. (04 Marks)
7(a) Explain the behaviour of water level in wells in confined aquifers due to changes in the atmospheric pressure. (04 Marks)
(b) Describe a procedure by using Jacob’s method to calculate the aquifer parameters of a confine aquifer by using the well pumping test data. (06 Marks)
(c) What are Dupit’s assumptions? (04 Marks)
(d) A 30-cm well completely penetrates an artesian aquifer. The length of the strainer is 25m. Determine the discharge from the well when the drawdown at the pumping well is 4.0m. The coefficient of permeability of the aquifer is 345 m/day. Assume the radius of the well as 350m. (06 Marks)
8(a) What is meant by Trap Efficiency of a reservoir? What factors influence its value? (04 Marks)
(b) Explain the area-increment method of determining the sedimental distribution in a reservoir. (06 Marks)
(c) Distinguish between USLE and MUSLE? (06 Marks)
(d) A reservoir sediment is estimated through use of Koezler equation to have average unit weight of 1100 kg/m3 at the end of 35 years and 1120 kg/m3 at the end of 50 years. Estimate the average unit weight at the end of first year of deposit and at the end of 100 years. (04 Marks)

Friday, 14 October 2016

Fluid Mechanics- Model question paper for B.E/B.Tech Mechanical Engineering

1(a) Mention any 4 properties of a fluid. (04 Marks)
(b) With a neat sketch, explain the working of differential U-tube manometer. (06 Marks)
(c) A square lamina of side 0.6 m is immersed in water with one of its diagonal horizontal to the surface of water and the top corner point is 0.6 m below the free surface of water. Calculate the force on one side of the lamina and the location of centre of pressure. (06 Marks)
(d) Two circular discs of diameter of 200 mm are mounted coaxially and the gap of 0.13 mm between the plates is filled a viscous liquid (viscosity 0.14 Pa.s). Calculate the torque necessary to rotate one disc relative to other at a uniform speed of 7 rev/s. (04 Marks)
2(a) What are streamline, pathline and streak line? Write equations. (06 Marks)
(b) A stream function for a two dimensional flow field is expressed by an equation ψ = 3x + 4y + 2x2 – 2y2. Determine the corresponding velocity potential function. (04 Marks)
(c) Explain briefly the principle of superposition and show how it can be used to analyze the flow over arbitrary shaped bodies. (06 Marks)
(d) A 5 cm × 3 cm venturimeter placed at an angle of 300 with the horizontal carries a liquid of specific gravity of 0.80. The deflection of a differential mercury manometer shows deflection of 10 cm for a particular flow rate. Estimate the flow rate. Take coefficient of discharge of the venturimeter as 0.96. (04 Marks)
3(a) Explain Reynolds transport theorem. (06 Marks)
(b) A small hydropower plant operates under 100 m of head and using 30 m3/s of water to produce electric power. Head loss due to friction from inlet to exit is 20 m. Estimate the power extracted by the turbine if it discharges water at 2 m/s into the atmosphere at its exit. (04 Marks)
(c) Explain the properties of stress tensor. ( 06 Marks)
(d) Explain the terms vorticity and circulation. (04 Marks)
4(a) Write continuity equation, equations of motion and energy equation in spherical coordinates. (05 Marks)
(b) Prove that in an annulus pipe, stresses are positive at the walls. (07 Marks)
(c) Derive Hagen-Poiesuille equation for the flow through a circular pipe. (08 Marks)
5(a) Explain Ossen approximation. (06 Marks)
(b) Explain the properties of boundary layer equation. (06 Maerks)
(c) Show that in a two dimensional creeping flow, the stream function obeys the biharmonic equation. (04 Marks)
(d) What is the head loss in meters of water in a 300 m long smooth 10 cm diameter pipe carrying 0.1 m3/s of water at 200C. Use Blausius formula for calculating friction factor. (04 Marks)
6(a) Write a short note on flow over bluff bodies. (04 Marks)
(b) Distinguish between Boussinesq hypothesis and Prandtl’s mixing length hypothesis. (08 Marks)
(c) Define Mach number. What are zone of action and zone of silence? (04 Marks)
(d) Estimate the velocity and Mach number of a projectile which reflects a shock wave of angle 300 in air at pressure of 0.95 kg/cm2 at a temperature of 30C. (04 Marks)
7(a) Explain Buckingham π-theorem. (04 Marks)
(b) As per Stoke’s law, the terminal velocity V of a small sphere of density ρs and diameter D depends on the density of the liquid ρf, dynamic viscosity µ and acceleration due to gravity g. Express the functional relationship between the variables in a dimensionless form. (06 Marks)
(c) What are the assumptions made during the internal estimate of the error? (04 Marks)
(d) A 1:50 scale model of a boat has a wave resistance of 0.02 N when operating in water at 1 m/s. Find the corresponding prototype resistance. Find also the horsepower required for the prototype. What velocity does this test represent in the prototype? (06 Marks)
8(a) Using a neat sketch, explain the working of Laser Doppler Anemometer. (08 Marks)
(b) Reynolds stress model is a seven-equation model and is well suited for fluid flow analysis through complex geometries. Explain. (04 Marks)
(c) What purpose Nacelle and gearbox serves in a wind turbine? (04 Marks)
(d) Mention some disadvantages of hydropower. (04 Marks)

Thursday, 13 October 2016

Material Science and Engineering- Model question paper for B.E/B.Tech Mechanical Engineering

1(a) You would like to design an aircraft that can be flown by human power nonstop for a distance of 30 km. What types of material properties would you recommend? What materials might be appropriate? (06 Marks)
(b) Explain why modulus of elasticity of simple thermoplastic polymers, such as polyethylene and polystyrene, is expected to be very low compared with that of metals and ceramics? (04 Marks)
(c) What is polymorphism? What are the different polymorphs of carbon? (06 Marks)
(d) What are Miller indices? Sketch (110) and (221) planes in a cubic lattice. (04 Marks)
2(a) Explain the term strain hardening. (04 Marks)
(b) Amorphous PET is more permeable to CO2 than PET that contains micro-crystallites. Explain why? (06 Marks)
(c) Explain Fick’s first law of diffusion. (06 Marks)
(d) A Niobium alloy is produced by introducing tungsten substitutional atoms in the BCC structure; eventually an alloy is produced that has a lattice parameter 0.32554 nm and a density of 11.95 g/cm3. Calculate the fraction of the atoms in the alloy that are tungsten. (04 Marks)
3(a) How is tensile toughness defined in relation to the true stress-strain diagram? How is tensile toughness related to impact toughness? (06 Marks)
(b) FCC metals are often recommended for use at low temperatures, particularly when any sudden loading of the part is expected. Explain why. (04 Marks)
(c) Write down the formulas for calculating the stress and strain for a sample subjected to a tensile test. Assume the sample shows necking. (06 Marks)
(d) When a 3000 kg load is applied to a 10 mm diameter ball in a Brinell test of a steel, an indentation of 3.1 mm is produced. Estimate the tensile strength of the steel. (04 Marks)
4(a) What is the difference between failure of a material by creep and that by stress rupture? (06 Marks)
(b) The amount of plastic deformation that can be performed during hot working is almost unlimited.  Justify this statement. (04 Marks)
(c) Metals like Magnesium cannot be effectively strengthened using cold working. Explain why. (06 Marks)
(d) A polymer that contains internal flaws 1 mm in length fails at a stress of 25 MPa. Determine the plane strain fracture toughness of the polymer. Assume that f =1. (04 Marks)
5(a) What is the difference between fusion welding, brazing and soldering? (06 Marks)
(b)What is ABS copolymer? State some of the applications of this material. (04 Marks)
(c) Briefly state the Hume-Rothery rules and explain the rationale. (06 Marks)
(d) A 10 cm cube of a liquid metal is allowed to solidify. A spherical shrinkage cavity with a diameter of 3.725 cm is observed in the solid casting. Determine the percent volume change that occurs during solidification. (04 Marks)
6(a) Why does the martensite phase not appear on the Fe-Fe 3C phase diagram? (04 Marks)
(b) What is a supersaturated solution? How do we obtain supersaturated solutions during precipitation hardening? Why is the formation of a supersaturated solution necessary? (06 Marks)
(c) Design a corrosion-resistant steel to use for a pump that transports liquid Helium at 4 K in a superconducting magnet. (06 Marks)
(d) A 1030 steel is given an improper quench and temper heat treatment, producing a final structure composed of 60% martensite and 40% ferrite. Estimate the carbon content of the martensite and the austenitizing temperature that was used. What austenitizing temperature would you recommend? (04 Marks)
7(a) Design a nickel-titanium alloy that will produce 60 volume percent Ni3Ti precipitate in a pure nickel matrix. (06 Marks)
(b) What are linear and branched polymers? Can thermoplastics be branched? (06 Marks)
(c) Explain the terms crazing and blushing. (04 Marks)
(d) Calculate the degree of polymerization if 6,6 nylon has a molecular weight of 120,000 g/mol. (04 Marks)
8(a) Draw and explain a typical heat-treatment profile encountered in processing of glass-ceramics. (06 Marks)
(b) Can ceramic materials show superplastic behaviour or are they always brittle? Explain. (04 Marks)
(c) Explain briefly in what sporting equipment composite materials are used? What is the main reason why composites are used in these applications? (06 Marks)
(d) A 0.01 cm thick sheet of a polymer with a modulus of elasticity 4800 MPa is sandwiched between two 4 mm thick sheets of glass with a modulus of elasticity of 83000 MPa. Calculate the modulus of elasticity

of the composite parallel and perpendicular to the sheets. (04 Marks)

Biochemistry-Model question paper for MBBS

1(a) Explain the consequence and role of compartmentation of enzymes. (06 Marks)
(b) Write the open chain structures for (a) D-gluconic acid and (b) D-glucoronic acid. (06 Marks)
(c) There are two possible chair conformers of beta-D-glucopyranose. How many boat conformers are possible? (04 Marks)
(d) The specific rotation of maltose in water is +138 degrees. What would be the concentration of a maltose solution that had an optical rotation of +23 degrees if a polarimeter tube 10 cm long was used? (04 Marks)
2(a) Calculate the isoelectric point of (a) arginine and (b) histidine. (06 Marks)
(b) What are the reasons for the marked stability of an alpha helix? (06 Marks)
(c) What is meant by the statement that a particular conformation of an amino acid residue lies in an unfavourable region of the Ramachandran plot? (04 Marks)
(d) Theronine constitutes 1.8% by weight of the amino acid content of insulin. Given that the molecular weight of theronine is 119, what is the minimum molecular weight of Insulin? (04 marks)
3(a) Why is the triple helix of collagen a better structure for providing tensile strength than the alpha helix? (04 Marks)
(b) The identification of the type and subtype of intermediate filament help in the diagnosis and classification of cancer. Explain. (06 Marks)
(c) How many different molecules of triacylglycerol can be made from glycerol and four different fatty acids? (06 Marks)
(d) The pH of the gastric juice is 1. The cells that produce gastric juice have an internal pH of 7. Calculate the ΔG for transport of protons from these cells into the stomach at 37 degree Celsius temperature. Given R = 8.3 J/mol.K. (04 Marks)
4(a) What feature of the amino acid composition of histones enables them to interact strongly with DNA? (04 Marks)
(b) Why does messenger RNA have the most heterogeneous base sequences of the major forms of RNA present in the cytoplasm of a cell? (04 Marks)
(c) What is the basic difference between the reaction catalyzed by (a) a mutase enzyme and that catalyzed by an isomerase; (b) an oxidase, an oxygenase, and the reverse reaction of a reductase? Give examples. (08 Marks)
(d) Give some examples of enzymes that are smaller than their substrates. (04 Marks)
5(a) How does varying the substrate concentration relative to the enzyme concentration affect the validity of the steady-state assumption and the applicability of the Michaelis-Menten expression? (06 Marks)
(b) Prove that the sum of the control strengths of all enzymes in a linear sequence of reaction is 1. (06 marks)
(c) Write a brief note on the role of ATP in bioenergetics. (04 Marks)
(d) Calculate the mean activity coefficient in a solution of 0.25 mol L-1Na3PO4. (04 Marks)
6(a) How is the concentration of the glucose in the blood maintained (a) during rest after a carbohydrate–rich meal and (b) during prolonged exercise? (04 marks)
(b) Termites exist almost entirely on a diet of cellulose. How is the cellulose degraded by the termites to carbohydrates, which can be used as an energy source. (06 Marks)
(c) If a protein inhibitor of succinyl-CoA synthetase is applied to liver cells and germinating plant cells, what effect would this have on energy production and the synthesis of carbohydrate in both types of cell? (06 Marks)
(d) Calculate the number of molecules of ATP that can be produced by substrate-level phosphorylation of ADP from two molecules of acetyl-CoA in the (a) citric acid cycle and (b) glyoxylate cycle. (04 Marks)
7(a) What effect would a deficiency of carnitine palmitoytransferase in skeletal muscle have on the ability of a person to perform prolonged exercise? (06 Marks)
(b) Why does feeding compounds that act as methyl-group donors to patients with fatty liver alleviate the condition?  (04 Marks)
(c) How is it possible to distinguish between the different cytochromes in the electron-transport chain? (06 Marks)
(d) Given that the internal pH of a mitochondrion is 7.8, and assuming that a mitochondrion has a volume the same as the sphere of diameter 1.4×10-6 m, calculate the number of protons inside the mitochondrion. (04 Marks)
8(a) Glutamine from the diet and from muscle during fasting can be converted into alanine in the intestine. Which enzymes are involved in this conversion? (04 Marks)
(b) What feature of circular, double-helical DNA is essential for it to function as a vector for DNA cloning? (04 Marks)
(c) Decode the following RNA sequence into the corresponding amino acid sequence:
(d) What is the difference between a repressor and a corepressor in relation to transcription? (06 Marks)

Wednesday, 12 October 2016

Embedded systems architecture- model question paper for B.E/B.Tech Computer science

1(a) Name five challenges commonly faced when designing an embedded system. (05 Marks)
(b) How can embedded system standards typically be classified? (04 marks)
(c) Name and describe three of the most common byte processing schemes. (06 Marks)
(d) What is an interpreter? Give two examples of interpreted languages. (05 Marks)
2(a) Write a note on von Neumann model. (04 marks)
(b) What are the basic materials that all components on an embedded board are composed off? (04 Marks)
(c) What is the difference between a passive circuit element and an an active circuit element? Name three examples of each. (08 marks)
(d) What is a flip-flop? (04 Marks)
3(a) Name and describe the three most common ISA models on which architectures are based. (06 Marks)
(b) What do the main components of a board and the internal design of a processor have in common in reference to the von Neumann model? (04 Marks)
(c) Name and describe the six logical units to classify I/O hardware. (06 Marks)
(d) What is the difference between ROM and RAM? Give two examples of each. (04 Marks)
4(a) What are the three most common schemes used to store and retrieve data in cache? What is the difference between a cache hit and a cache miss? (08 Marks)
(b) What is the difference between an MMU and an MEMC? (04 Marks)
(c) How can memory impact the performance of a system? (04 Marks)
(d) Write a short note on memory management of external memory. (04 Marks)
5(a) Name and describe four examples of device driver functions that can be implemented for bus protocols. (08 Marks)
(b) What are the three main types of interrupts? (03 Marks)
(c) List and describe five types of device driver functions. (05 Marks)
(d) What is byte ordering? Name the possible byte ordering schemes. (04 Marks)
6(a) What is a kernel? Name and describe two functions of a kernel. (05 Marks)
(b) What are race conditions? Explain some techniques for resolving race conditions. (06 Marks)
(c) What are the most common schemes used to create tasks? (05 Marks)
(d) Name and describe four OS algorithms that can be implemented to swap pages in and out of memory. (04 Marks)
7(a) What is HTTP? What types of applications would incorporate an HTTP client or server? (06 Marks)
(b) What is the difference between an FTP client and an FTP server? What type of embedded devices would implement each? (06 Marks)
(c) What is the difference between a qualitative and quantitative quality attribute approach? (04 Marks)
(d) Name and describe four examples of general ABC features from five different influences. (04 Marks)
8(a) What is the difference between testing-to-pass and testing-to-fail? (04 Marks)
(b) What are some features that differentiate compiling needs in embedded systems versus in other types of computer systems? (04 Marks)
(c) What is debugging? What are the main types of debugging tools? (06 Marks)
(d) What is an object file? What is the difference between a loader and a linker? (06 Marks)

Saturday, 8 October 2016

Engineering Chemistry- Model question paper for B.E/B.Tech

1(a) Explain the construction and working of a glass electrode. Mention their advantages and disadvantages. (06 marks)
(b) Define a concentration cell. Explain the working of a concentration cell. (04 Marks)
(c) Define emf of a cell. How is it determined? (04 Marks)
(d) A concentration cell is constructed by dipping copper rods in 0.001 m and 0.1 M CuSO4 solutions. Calculate the emf of the cell at 298 K. (04 Marks).
2 (a) Explain the construction of lead sorage battery. Write the discharging and charging reactions. (06 Marks)
(b) What are supercapacitors? Explain their working. What are their advantages? (06 Marks)
(c) Explain electrochemical theory of corrosion. (04 marks)
(d) What are the differences between sacrificial anode method and impressed current method of cathodic protection? What are the limitations of impressed current method. (04 Marks)
3 (a) Give an account of electroless plating of nickel and copper. What are the applications? (06 Marks)
(b) What is decomposition potential? How is it determined? What is its significance in electrolysis? (06 Marks)
(c) What are the characteristics of a good deposit? (04 Marks)
(d) Explain the methods of cleaning a metal surface prior to plating. (04 Marks)
4 (a) What is meant be cracking? Describe with a neat diagram, fluidized bed cracking method. (06 Marks)
(b) What is biodiesel? How is it prepared? What are the advantages? (06 Marks)
(c) Differentiate between direct solar power utilization and indirect solar power utilization. (04 Marks)
(d) Write a note on physical and chemical properties of silicon relevant to photovoltaics. (04 Marks)
5 (a) What are lower critical temperature and upper critical temperature lines with respect to iron carbon phase diagram. (04 Marks)
(b) Differentiate between true equilibrium and metastable equilibrium. (04 Marks)
(c) Explain the principle of potentiometric titration. How is the end point located? (06 Marks)
(d) State Beer’s law and Lambert’s law. Derive the mathematical expression for Beer-Lambert’s law. (06 Marks)
6 (a) Define monomer, polymer and functionality with examples. (06 Marks)
(b) Thermal control is rather difficult in bulk polymerization. Explain. (04 Marks)
(c) Classify the polymers on the basis of mechanism of polymerization. (06 Marks)
(d) Explain the methods of polymer moulding. (04 Marks)
7(a) Give a brief account of glass transition temperature. (04 Marks)
(b) What are conducting polymers? Explain. (04 Marks)
(c) What are elastomers? Write the structure for natural rubber and gutta percha. What are the differences between them? (08 Marks)
(d) Write a note on nanocomposites. (04 Marks)
8(a) Why does the sewage need treatment? Explain the primary, secondary and tertiary treatment methods for sewage. (08 Marks)
(b) Explain the treatments given to water for municipal supply. (04 Marks)
(c) What are the impurities present in water? (04 Marks)
(d) What are the characteristics of potable water? (04 Marks)

Field theory- model question paper for MSc Physics/ B.E/B.Tech Electronics

1(a) transform the vector A = yax – xay + zaz into cylindrical coordinates. (04 marks)
(b) Determine the electric field intensity on the axis of a circular conductor (ring) of linear charge density ρL.(06 Marks)
(c) Determine using gauss’s law, the electric field due to a sphere of charge of radius, a. The charges are uniformly distributed over a spherical surface with a distribution ρs. (06 Marks)
(d) An infinitely long line charge of uniform density, ρL produces an electric field. Show that the divergence of this electric field is zero everywhere except at the line. (04 marks)
2(a) Write a note on equipotential surface. (04 Marks)
(b) Three identical line charges with ρL= 10 nC/m are placed on each of the coordinate axes of a rectangular coordinate system. Given the points A(1,2,3) and B(8,6,10), find VAB due to all the three line charges. (06 Marks)
(c) Show that the gradient of the scalar field, V (x,y) = x-y (V) is normal to the planes of constant V. (05 Marks)
(d) What is an electric dipole? Mention one application. (05 marks)
3(a) Ina cylindrical electron beam of radius R and unit length, the volume charge density is given by, ρv = Kρ, where K is some arbitrary constant. Determine the energy stored in the beam. (08 Marks)
(b) Distinguish between convection current and conduction current. (06 Marks)
(c) A copper wire of cross sectional area, 10 -4 m2 carries a uniformly distributed current of 200 A. If the electron density in copper is 4.25×1028 electrons/m3, determine the average drift velocity of the electrons. What is the electric field in the wire? If the length of the wire is 105 m, calculate the potential difference between its ends. What is the resistance of the wire? (06 Marks)
4 (a) Write a note on boundary conditions for perfect dielectric materials. (06 Marks)
(b)  Determine the capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor consisting of two parallel conducting plates of area A and separation d. (06 Marks)
(c) Find the capacitance of an isolated conducting sphere of radius a. (04 Marks)
(d) What is Poisson’s equation? Explain. (04 Marks)
5 (a) State and explain Uniqueness theorem. (06 Marks)
(b) In a charge free region of free space, the potential field is given as V (x,y) = x3-f(x)-y2. Find f(x) if E and V are zero at (0,0,0). (06 marks)
(c) Determine magnetic field due to a current, I flowing in a straight conductor of length 2L. (08 Marks)
6(a) Explain Ampere’s circuital law. (04 Marks)
(b) Write down Maxwell’s equations. (04 Marks)
(c) Show that the magnetic flux density B set up by an infinitely long current carrying conductor satisfies the Gauss’s law. (06 Marks)
(d) Write a note on scalar and vector magnetic potentials. (06 Marks)
7 (a) Explain the terms magnetic susceptibility and relative permeability. (04 marks)
(b) Find the self inductance per unit length of an infinitely long solenoid. (04 Marks)
(c) A steady current is restricted to flow on the outer surface of the inner conductor (ρ = a) and the inner surface of the outer conductor (ρ = b) in a coaxial cable. If the coaxial cable carries a current, I, determine the energy stored per unit length in the magnetic field in the region between the two conductors. Assume that the dielectric is non-magnetic. (06 Marks)
(d) Consider two coupled circuits having self-inductances L1 and L2 that carry currents I1 and I2 respectively. The mutual inductance between the two coupled circuits is M12. Determine the ratio I1/I2 that makes the stored magnetic energy, Wm a minimum. (06 Marks)
8 (a) From Faraday’s law, derive Maxwell’s equation in point form. (04 marks)
(b) The dry earth has a conductivity 10-8 S/m and a relative permeability 4. Find the frequency range on which the conduction current dominates the displacement current. (04 Marks)
(c) Write the phasor and time-domain forms of a uniform plane wave having a frequaency of 1 (GHz), that is traveling in the +x direction in a medium of ε = 12ε0 and µ = µ0 (06 Marks)
(d) What are Snell’s laws? Explain. (06 Marks)

Monday, 3 October 2016

Physical and Geometrical optics- model question paper for BSc. Optometry

1(a) Write a short note on dual nature of light. (04 Marks)
(b) what are wavefronts? Mention two examples. (04 Marks)
(c) Deduce an expression for the total energy of a simple harmonic motion. (08 Marks)
(d) A particle performs harmonic oscillations with a period of 2 seconds. The amplitude of the oscillations is 10 cm. Find the displacement, velocity and acceleration of the particle in 0.2 second after it passes through its equilibrium position, if the beginning of the oscillation coincides with the equilibrium position. (04 Marks)
2(a) What is reflection phase shift? Explain. (04 Marks)
(b) Explain the method of determination of wavelength of a light source using Lloyd’s mirror. (08 Marks)
(c) Write a note on interference in thin films. (04 Marks)
(d) Green light of wavelength 5100 Å from a narrow slit is incident on a double slit. If the overall separation of 10 fringes on a screen 2m away is 2 cm, find the slit separation. (04 marks)
3(a) Write expressions for resolving power and dispersive power of a grating. (04 Marks)
(b) Explain Fresnel’s diffraction at a circular aperture. (06 Marks)
(c) Explain how a grating is used to determine wavelength of light. (06 Marks)
(d) For second order diffraction in a grating, angle of diffraction was 20 degrees. If the wavelength of the light used is 560 nm, determine the grating element. (04 marks)
4(a) Explain the method of construction of a Nicol prism. (06 Marks)
(b) Explain Brewster’s law and Malus law. (04 Marks)
(c) What is optical activity? Explain the working of half shade polarimeter. (06 Marks)
(d) What are quarter wave and half wave plates? (04 Marks)
5(a) Write a short note on Lummer-Brodhun photometer. (04 Marks)
(b) Distinguish between rayleigh scattering and Raman scattering. (04 Marks)
(c) With a neat energy level diagram, explain the working of Ruby laser. (08 Marks)
(d) What is the wavelength of a semiconductor laser, if the material used for the fabrication has a bandgap of 1.486 eV. (04 Marks)
6(a) Write a short note on Fourier transforms spectroscopy. (06 Marks)
(b) What is attenuation in an optical fiber? (04 Marks)
(c) Write a note on avalanche photodiode. (04 Marks)
(d) Determine numerical aperture and acceptance angle of a fiber with core refractive index 1.52 and cladding refractive index 1.50 when placed in (a) air and (b) in water of refractive index 1.33. (06 Marks)
7(a) Explain Fermat’s principle. (06 Marks)
(b) Distinguish between ophthalmatic prisms and reflecting prisms.(06 Marks)
(c) Write a note on chromatic aberration. (05 Marks)
(d) Determine critical angle for total internal reflection if the refractive index of the medium is 1.5. (03 marks)
8(a) Derive lens maker’s formula. (06 Marks)
(b) Explain how focal length of a convex lens is determined by Bassel’s method and using lensometer. (06 Marks)
(c) What are aspheric mirrors? (03 Marks)
(d) What is photoelectric effect? Explain Einstein’s photoelectric equations. (05 Marks)

Sunday, 2 October 2016

Basic electrical Engineering-Model question paper for B.E/B.Tech

1(a) Mention the limitations of Ohm’s law. (04 Marks)
(b) What are ideal voltage source and ideal current source? (04 Marks)
(c) State and explain Kirchoff’s voltage law and current law. (08 Marks)
(d) Two voltmeters A and B having resistances 25 kΩ and 15 kΩ respectively are connected in series across 240V. What is the reading of each voltmeter? (04 Marks)
2(a) Give the expression for mutual inductance between two coils connected on same magnetic material. Explain the terms. (04 Marks)
(b) Explain Fleming’s right hand rule and left hand rule. (06 Marks)
(c) Derive an expression for dynamically induced E.M.F. (06 Marks)
(d) A coil of 300 turns wound on a non-magnetic material has an inductance of 10 mH. Calculate (a) the flux produced by a current of 5A and (b) the average value of the e.m.f induced when a current of 5A is reversed in 8ms.(04 Marks)
3(a) What is a D.C shunt generator? Draw its circuit and explain. (06 Marks)
(b) Explain the terms back pitch, front pitch and resultant pitch. (06 Marks)
(c) What is the function of brushes? What material is used to make brushes? (04 Marks)
(d) A 4 pole generator with wave wound armature has 51 slots, each having 24 conductors; the flux per pole is 0.01 Weber. At what speed must the armature rotate to give an induced e.m.f of 220 V? What will be the voltage developed, if the winding is lap connected and the armature rotates at the same speed developed? (04 Marks)
4(a) What is the need for using starters in DC motors? (03 Marks)
(b) Mention some applications of DC cumulatively compounded motor. (04 Marks)
(c) Explain in detail different characteristics of DC shunt motors. (09 Marks)
(d) The armature current of a series motor is 60A, when on full load. If the load is adjusted so that this current decreases to 40A, find the new torque expensed as a percentage of full torque. The flux for a current of 40A is 70% of that when the current is 60A. (04 Marks)
5(a) With a neat figure, explain the construction and working principle of a dynamometer type watt meter. (08 Marks)
(b) Whar are the advantages of sinusoidal waveform generation? (04 Marks)
(c) Write a note on the significance of power factor. (04 Marks)
(d) A coil of power factor 0.6 is in series with a 100 µF capacitor. When connected to a 50 Hz supply, the potential difference across the coil is equal to the potential difference across the capacitor. Find the resistance and inductance of the coil. (04 Marks)
6(a) What are the various types of domestic wiring? (04 Marks)
(b) With neat figures, explain casing and capping. (06 Marks)
(c) What is an earth leakage circuit breaker? Mention the different types of ELCB’s. (06 Marks)
(d) Define fusing current and fusing factor. (04 Marks)
7(a) What is phase sequence and what is its significance. (04 Marks)
(b) Define three phase AC circuits. Explain the generation of three phase voltage. (06 Marks)
(c) Explain the terms pitch factor, distribution factor and winding factor as applied to an alternator. (06 Marks)
(d) A 2 pole, 3 phase alternator running at 3000 r.p.m has 42 armature slots with 2 conductors in each slot. Calculate the flux per pole required to generate a line voltage of 2300 V. Distribution factor is 0.952 and the pitch factor is 0.956. (04 Marks)
8(a) Derive the e.m.f equation of a transformer. (06 Marks)
(b) Derive the condition for which the efficiency of a transformer is maximum. (06 Marks)
(c)  Explain the working principle of a three phase induction motor. (04 Marks)
(d) A 100 KVA, 50 Hz single-phase transformer has a turn ratio of 1000/250. The primary winding is connected to 500V, 50 Hz supply. Find the secondary open circuit voltage and the maximum value of the flux in the core. (04 Marks)

Saturday, 1 October 2016

Elements of civil engineering-model question paper for B.Tech/B.E

1 (a) Draw typical cross section of a road and explain the parts. (06 Marks)
(b) Distinguish between detention dams and diversion dams. (04 marks)
(c) Explain the classification of bridges on the basis of bridge floor and position of high flood level. (05 Marks)
(d) Write a note on geotechnical engineering. (05 Marks)
2(a) State and explain with neat sketches (i) principle of transmissibility of forces, (ii) principle of physical independence of forces and (iii) principle of superposition of forces. (09 Marks)
(b) Explain the resolution and composition of forces in Cartesian coordinate system. (06 Marks)
(c) A door needs 7500 N-mm to open it. Mr.X applies the force at the edge of the door shutter which is at a distance of 750 mm from the hinge and Mr.Y applies it at a distance of 500 mm from the hinge. What forces have they to apply to open the door? (05 Marks)
3(a) State and prove Lami’s theorem. (06 Marks)
(b) State and prove Varignon’s theorem of moments. (08 Marks)
(c) Define the terms resultant force, composition of force and resolution of force. (06 Marks)
4 (a) Differentiate between hinged support and roller support. (04 Marks)
(b) Explain different types of beams with neat sketches. (06 Marks)
(c) Write notes on dry friction and fluid friction. (04 Marks)
(d) A body resting in a plane (horizontal0 required a pull of 18 KN inclined at 300 to plane just to move it. It was also found that a push of 22 KN inclined at 300 to the plane just moved the body. Determine the weight of the body and the coefficient of friction. (06 Marks)
5 (a) Derive an expression for centroid of a triangle of base ‘b’ and depth ‘d’. (06 Marks)
(b) Obtain centroidal distance for a sector of angle 2α from first principles. Use it to locate centroid of semicircular and quarter circular plane laminae. (08 Marks)
(c) Determine the centroid of a quarter-circular area of radius ‘r’ from first principles. (06 Marks)
6 (a) State and prove perpendicular axis theorem. (06 Marks)
(b) Derive an expression for moment of inertia of a semicircular lamina and quarter circle of radius “R”. (08 Marks)
(c) Radius of a circle is 2 cm. Determine the moment of inertia about its diametrical axis. What should be the radius of the semi circle to get the same moment of inertia? (06 Marks)
7(a) Write a note on curvilinear motion. (06 Marks)
(b) A stone is thrown vertically upward from the top of the tower 30m high with a velocity of 16 m/s. find (i) the highest elevation for the stone.(ii) the time required for the stone to cross the top of tower during its downward motion and corresponding velocity. (08 Marks)
(c) The motion of a particle is defined by the relation x = 4t3-9t2+12t-8. Determine the position and acceleration when velocity = 0 m/s. (06 Marks)
8(a) Define the terms angle of projection, horizontal range, vertical height and time of flight in projectile motion. (08 Marks)
(b) A particle is projected at such an angle with the horizontal that the horizontal range is three times the greatest height attained. Calculate the angle of projection. (04 Marks)
(c) Two trains A and B of same length 100m move in the same direction. It is found that 20 seconds are required to cross one another if train a moves with 50% of velocity of train B. calculate the velocity of both the trains. (04 Marks)
(d) Calculate the safe driving speed of a curve with a radius of 300m, the super elevation being 0.056. Assume maximum value of µ = 0.15 (04 Marks)

Elements of mechanical engineering-model question paper for B.Tech/B.E

1(a) Write the advantages and disadvantages of gaseous fuels over liquid fuels. (04 Marks)
(b) Using a neat figure, explain the principle of operation of hydroelectric power plant. (08 Marks)
(c) Write a note on classification of hydraulic turbines. (04 Marks)
(d) Define radial flow and axial flow. (04 Marks)
2 (a) Mention the differences between petrol engine and diesel engine. (04 Marks)
(b) What is a V-engine? Explain. (03 Marks)
(c) With a neat sketch, explain the working of a 4-stroke diesel engine with PV diagram. (06 Marks)
(d) A single cylinder 4-stroke engine runs at 1000 rpm has a bore of 115 mm and has a stroke of 140mm. The brake load is 6 kg at 600 mm radius and the mechanical efficiency is 80%. Calculate the brake power and the mean effective pressure. (07 Marks)
3(a) What is automation? Explain the types of automation. (06 Marks)
(b) Explain the advantages, disadvantages and applications of NC machine. (06 Marks)
(c) Explain the terms counter boring and counter sinking. (04 Marks)
(d) What do you mean by taper turning? With a neat sketch explain paper turning by swiveling the compound tool rest. (04 Marks)
4 (a) Explain (i) Slot milling (ii) Angular milling and (iii) End milling.  (06 Marks)
(b) What are the advantages, disadvantages and applications of robotics? (09 Marks)
(c) Explain the robotic application in space research. (05 marks)
5(a) Write down the classification of non-ferrous materials with examples. (07 Marks)
(b) Define a composite material. How composites are classified? (07 Marks)
(c) Write the applications of composite material in automobile industry. (05 Marks)
6 (a) Define the terms ton of refrigeration and co-efficient of performance. (04 Marks)
(b) What is the principle of refrigeration? Name the essential parts of refrigerator and briefly explain their functions. (08 Marks)
(c) Explain the different types of refrigerants and their uses. (08 Marks)
7 (a) Write a note on desirable chemical properties of a good refrigerant. (06 Marks)
(b) Write a note on use of rare-earth based materials on refrigeration. (06 Marks)
(c) Explain vapour absorption refrigeration system. (08 Marks)
8(a) With a neat sketch, explain the construction and working of a room air conditioner. Mention its merits and demerits. (08 Marks)
(b) Explain VCR and VAR systems. (08 Marks)
(c) Explain the biomedical application of air conditioning. (04 Marks)

Friday, 30 September 2016

Engineering Physics for B.Tech/B.E model question paper

1(a) What is uncertainty principle? Based on Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, show that electrons cannot exist    within the nucleus.                                               (06 Marks)   
(b) What is Planck’s radiation law?  Show how Wien’s law and Rayleigh-Jean’s law can be derived from it.                                                                               (05 Marks)
(c) Explain de-Broglie Hypothesis. (4 Marks)
(d) A quantum particle confined to one dimensional box of width ‘a’ is in its first excited state. What is the probability of finding the particle over an interval of (a/2) marked symmetrically at the centre of the box?                                            (05 Marks)
2(a)Write a note on expectation value. (4 Marks)
(b) Set up time independent one dimensional Schrödinger equation.         (06 Marks) 
(c) Define group velocity. Derive relation between group velocity and phase velocity.                                                                                                                   (06 Marks)
(d) Estimate the time spent by an atom in the excited state during the excitation and de-excitation processes, when a spectral line of wavelength 546 nm and width 10-14 m is emitted.                                                                                                            (04 marks)
3.(a) Explain law of mass action.                                                                       (4 Marks)
(b). Write a short note on Fermi-Dirac statistics                                    (04 Marks)
(c)What is Meissner effect? Distinguish between Type-I and Type-II superconductors.                                                                                                              (06 Marks) 
(d) For intrinsic gallium arsenide, the room temperature electrical conductivity is 10-6 ohm-1m-1. The electron and hole mobilities are respectively 0.85 m2/Vs and 0.04 m2/Vs. Calculate the intrinsic carrier concentration at room temperature.    (06 Marks)
4.(a) Write notes on isotope effect and critical surrent density of superconductors.                                                                                                                                 (04 Marks)        
(b) What is Josephson effect?                                                                          (04 Marks)
(c) Explain Lorentz-Drude theory. Write special comments on positive Hall coefficient of zinc.                                                                                        (8 Marks)     
 (d) Calculate the probability of an electron occupying an energy level 0.02 eV above the Fermi level and 0.02 eV below the Fermi level at 200 K.                  (04 Marks)
5.(a) Describe the recording and reconstruction processes in holography, with the help of suitable diagrams.                                                                            (05 Marks)      
(b) Obtain expressions for numerical aperture and acceptance angle of an optical fiber.                                                                                                                    (04 Marks)
(c)  Explain the different types of optical fibers.                                     (04 Marks)      
(d) Describe the construction and working of semiconductor laser. The average output power of laser source emitting a laser beam of wavelength 633nm is 5 mW. Find the number of photons emitted per second by the laser source.                     (07 Marks)
6(a) Explain the crystal structure of sugar crystals. Write notes on Polymorphism and Allotropy.                                                                                                        (08 Marks)       
(b) Obtain an expression for interplanar distance in a cubic crystal in terms of Miller indices.                                                                                                 (04 Marks)
(c) What are unit cell, lattice parameter, Bravaise lattice and coordination number.
(4 Marks)
(d) A monochromatic X-ray beam of wavelength 1.5 Å undergoes second order Bragg reflection from the plane (211) of a cubic crystal, at a glancing angle of 54.380. Calculate the lattice constant.                                                                                  (04 Marks)

7(a) Explain how nanoparticles are synthesised by molecular beam epitaxy method.
(6 Marks)
(b). Describe the arc discharge method of producing carbon nanotubes. (04 Marks)
(c) Write a note on application of nanoparticles in agriculture.                (04 Marks)
(d) Explain the working of SEM. In a SEM, electrons are accelerated by an anode potential difference of 60 kV. Estimate the wavelength of the electrons in the scanning beam.                                                                                                                      (06 Marks)

8(a) What is a shock wave? Mention three applications. Briefly explain Rankine-Hugonit shock equations.                                                                                 (08 Marks)      
(b) Explain the method of production of ultrasonic waves by magnetostriction method.
                                                                                                                        (04 Marks)
(c) What is nondestructive testing? mention some examples.                   (04 Marks)
(d) distinguish between NMR and ESR.                                                            (04 Marks)